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INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT AND PEACE STUDIES


UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN


Women for Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding in the Southern Caucasus

INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT AND PEACE STUDIES

Innovative Teaching Methodologies in Conflict Studies

Curriculum

Baku 2003

UNIFEM's is the women's fund at the United Nations. It provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programs and strategies that promote women's human rights, political participation and economic security.

UNIFEM works in partnership with UN organizations, governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and networks to achieve social justice and gender equality. It links women's issue and concerns to national, regional and global agendas, by fostering collaboration and providing technical expertise on gender mainstreaming and women's empowerment strategies.

Authors: Kazim Azimov, Irada Kasumova, Nasib Nasibli, Rena Safaraliyeva, Mominat Omarova.

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the views of UNIFEM, United Nations, or any of its affiliated organizations.

For more information and contacts:
UNIFEM Project Coordinator in Azerbaijan: Gulshan Pashayeva
UN House,
3, UN 50th Anniversary Street, Baku, 370001, Azerbaijan
Phone: (99412) 989888; 981628; 986453; 980579
Fax: (99412) 980579

Course Structure and Format

This course covers the following issues:

1. Introduction to Conflict and Peace Studies. A Brief History of Conflict Studies
2. The Typology and Dynamics of Social Conflict
3. Conflict Resolution: Negotiation and Mediation
4. Peacebuilding Process
5. The Role of Women in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Process

This course, like other university courses, is delivered in the format of lectures and seminars. However, there should be ample time for class questions, comments and discussions.

Designed for one semester, the course comprises 24 hours of lectures and 10 hours of seminars. In addition, students will write an 8 to 10 page essay for the class presentation or small group-discussion. 2 hours are assigned for the essay presentation. Then, in total the course consists of 36 academic hours.

Course Objectives

1. Knowledge. Based both on their life experience and the multi-disciplinary social science research literature, particularly of Western and American writers, students will get familiar with some key concepts, theoretical perspectives on communal identity, intrastate and interstate conflict prevention and resolution methods, negotiation processes in making peace. In particular, students are expected to be introduced to and learn about several key issues, such as following:

  • introduction to Conflict and Peace Studies;
  • a short history of Conflict and Peace Studies;
  • concept and structure of conflict;
  • causes or factors generating conflict;
  • typology and classification of conflict;
  • positive and negative functions of conflict;
  • dynamics of conflict developments;
  • internal, regional and international conflicts;
  • local ethnic conflicts and their global context;
  • typology of armed conflicts and war;
  • conflict management, prevention and resolution;
  • models of conflict management and conflict resolution;
  • negotiation and mediation in conflict;
  • peace building process;
  • women in preventing conflict and peacebuilding.

  • 2. Skills and Abilities. This course intends, firstly, to concentrate upon different models in conflict analysis and conflict resolution. Secondly, it applies this theory to case studies in local, regional and international conflicts. The major goal of the course is to examine and taste different models in practice, whether they work or not. The course materials and reading assignments encompass more effective and useful means and ways to resolve conflicts that are essential to the development of students' critical thinking and problem solving skills and abilities. In particular, various theoretical perspectives have to be utilized in shaping new visions and practical abilities of students. More specifically, students gain practical skills in data collecting, fact finding, analyzing and generalizing empirical materials and actively intervening in realistic conflicts that arise from and are caused by different societal factors. Students are expected to gain practical skills in conducting a survey, interview, dialogue, processing consensus, promoting interest, agreement, bargaining in negotiations and peace building. As a result, students gain practical abilities to reflect on why conflict arises, how conflict is analyzed, and how peace is gained among nations.

    3. Conceptual Frame. The course's conceptual frame is built on several ideas. First, conflict is introduced as a form of socialization, a fact of social life, an interpersonal and inter-group activity, and in short, as a model of society. For that reason, negotiation and mediation techniques, forms and methods are introduced as a set of means and recourses that serve to provide stability and balance between social structures and sociopolitical relationships, individual and group interaction. Second, students are expected to know that there is no return to harmonic abstract society or "conflict less" society, that this finds them well on how to live, create and interact in a pluralistic society ridden with conflicting interests society. Students themselves, (on the basis of analysis of impersonal rules of real life simulations exercises based on real-life experiences), by imitating or emulating real life situations, find out the means and ways to accommodate and resolve different conflicting interests and positions. Third, it is essential that students acquire decision-making skills and abilities in analyzing and synthesizing such complex concepts as: chaos and order, hostility and cooperation, position and interests, aggressiveness and tolerance, empathy and indifference, rigidity and compromise, insistence and consensus, examining how they work with or against real human needs and interests.

    Thus, based on these ideas, this course applies, inter alia, structural-functional approach to conflict analysis and conflict resolution. Particularly, in defining ethnic, race, class and gender identities and analyzing social and ethnic conflicts preference this course shall stick to social constructionist approach. In other words, multi-expressions of ethnic, group, tribe, gender, religious identities and conflicts are seen as different modifications of social conflict in politicized communities. This means that overall social conflicts are seen as a function and a struggle for deficient and scarce resources, political status, wealth and power in society. In this sense, market, for instance, is defined as conflict, which takes place in the sphere of economic interests, and is accompanied by buying and selling, bargaining and contracting relationships. Similarly, democracy is nothing, but open, competing opportunities to gain power, participating in or influencing power.

    Teaching Methodologies

    We deliberately use the noun " teaching " as an alternative to the verb " to teach " in order to accentuate, in the first case, the active position of students in a class, whereas the second case indicates a passive learning and teaching process. In the first case student is seen as subject of teaching, whereas in the second case student is only the object of teaching process. This means our class is student-centered, rather than teacher-centered, and class is meant for student, but not for teacher. Therefore, in organizing classes preference is given to cooperative and interactive learning, and throughout the course lectures and seminars are conducted according to the principles of cooperative class strategies. Taking into account the Western and American - based teaching experiences, we intend to include the following elements of interactive and cooperative teaching strategies into our lectures and seminars:

  • having students engaged in a problem-solving exercise or simulation;
  • having students engaged in a brainstorming activity;
  • assigning a small- group discussion or project focused on structured questions;
  • assigning student-centered class discussion (i. e., students develop the questions and lead the discussion to follow);
  • assigning presentations to individual students (e. g., debates, panel discussions);
  • having students engaged in a role-playing activity;
  • using a responsive lecture;
  • using lecture based on student-generated questions;
  • using demonstration during lecture;
  • giving a "surprise" short quiz;
  • using pauses during lecture;
  • assigning a short writing activity without having class discussion;
  • having students complete a self-assessment activity (e.g.; complete a questionnaire about their beliefs, values, attitudes);
  • having students complete a survey instrument;
  • using feedback lecture;
  • using the guided lecture procedure;
  • providing at least 15 minutes of time devoted to class discussion during lecture;
  • using (if applicable) an audiovisual stimulus (e.g.; a picture, scheme, cartoon, graph, diagrams etc; );
  • assigning an in-class reading activity followed by a significant class discussion, lasting at least for 15 minutes.

  • Course Requirements

    Students should attend regularly read assignments before class, and participate in class discussions and exercises. In recognition of how important discussion is in this class, 20% of the total grade will reflect the student's participation. In addition to reading and participation in discussion of readings, students will be expected to write an 8 to 10 page essay during the semester and present them for discussion in the class, which is 30% of the total grade - one final essay per a student. Some topics are suggested in this curriculum.

    Thus grades will be based on the final paper, class participation and attendance.

    Evaluation

    Written assignments and oral examination results are evaluated as follows:

  • A= Excellent. The content is deeper, thought is transparent, original, ability to synthesis and integration is very much strong; no mistakes in writing.
  • B= Good. The content has been thought out highly well, meets the requirements. The form reflects the general thought structure, though there are some difficulties in the consequence of thought. Some mistakes in writing impede from adequate understanding.
  • C= Satisfactory. The content can be accepted, thought is sufficiently strong, but logically is not cohesive. There are some essential difficulties in interpreting and exposition of the text. A lot of mistakes in writing make it difficult for perception.
  • D= Unsatisfactory. The content is poor; the issue is weak and inadequately developed. A lot of mistakes in writing.

  • Required and Supplementary Reading Materials

    Books, articles, reviews etc; are all on reserve in the University Library or available through the teacher. Electronic reserve can also be used in the Computer Room of Social Science Building on the 9th floor, Baku State University.

    NOTE: Within the frame of the given lectures and seminars the choice of ESSAY topics is optional and may be discussed among students and teacher at the assigned time. Students preserve the rights for either changing or improving the topics.

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Conflict and Peace Studies (2 hours)

    What is Conflict and Peace Studies? Defining Conflict Studies: some key concepts and categories. Conflict Studies as interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary subject. Sub-fields of Conflict Studies. Methodologies of Conflict Studies: traditional disciplinary methods (field research/ethnography; experiment; survey research; content analysis). Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary methods (a variety of comparativeness: comparative analytical strategies; cross-case comparisons; combined and synthetic strategies; discourse analysis).

    Two major trends in the western and American literature: (a) concentration directly upon the study of conflicts; (b) the study of peacemaking and means of achieving consensus (Roger Fisher and William Ury), the study of military actions: "If you want peace, study war".

    Readings:

    1. Coser, Lewis A. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. NY: The Free Press, London: Collier-Macmillan limited (pp.15-31). (Reader)
    2. Kriesberg Louis 1982. Social Conflicts. 2nd edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    3. Simmel, Georg 1955. Conflict. NY, London (pp. 13-57).
    4. Ritzer, George 1996. Sociological Theory. Fourth edition, NY: McGraw-Hill (pp.265-277). (Reader)
    5. Yang, Philip Q. 2000. Ethnic Studies. Issues and Approaches. NY: State University of New York (pp.39-60). (Reader)
    6. Smith, Anthony 1988. The Origins of Nations. Massachusetts (part 1, chapter 3; part 2, chapter 6).
    7. .. , 2000. . . , , . 6-27.
    8. .. , 1996. . , , . 5-13, 20-76.

    Lecture 2. A Brief History of Conflict Studies (2 hours)

    Development in conflict theory. Classical models. Karl Max: conflict as the contradiction between the forces and the relations of production, the struggle between classes. Emile Durkheim: conflict and deviant behavior. Max Weber: conflict as a struggle of material and ideal interests of different status groups. George Simmel: conflict as a form of social interaction and socialization.

    Modern conflict theory. Conflict as social tension in the theory of social action and structural functionalism: Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, Neil Smelser.

    The theory of "conflict model" of society: Ralf Dahrendorf. The criticism of conflict theory and structural functionalism. Towards the way of reconciling and integrating the two theories: Lewis Coser's The Functions of Social Conflict.

    A more integrative conflict theory: Randall Collins' Conflict Sociology (1975) as an effort to integrate conflict at macro- and micro-levels.

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union and the development of subfields in Conflict Studies: ethnic conflict as a type of social conflict. Basic categories of ethnic conflict: nonviolent confrontation, violent confrontation, and expressed hostile sentiments. Modern theories of ethnic conflict: cultural clash/value dissensus theory, human ecology theory, competition theory, ethnic inequality/subordination theory (internal colonialism, cultural division of labor theory), a modern split labor market class theory.

    Readings:

    1. Brown, Michael E.1996. The Causes and Regional Dimension of Internal Conflict. In: Brown, Michael E. (Ed). The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Massachusetts (chapter 17).
    2. Ritzer, George 1996. Sociological Theory. Fourth edition, NY: McGraw-Hill (pp.265-277). (Reader)
    3. Sisk, Timothy D. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (chapter 2).
    4. Van de Goor, Lue (Ed.) 1996. Conflict and Development: A General Introduction. In: Between Development and Destruction. An Enquiry into the Causes of Conflict in Post-Colonial States. Clingendael: Macmillan Press.
    5. Yang, Philip Q. 2000. Ethnic Studies. Issues and Approaches. NY: State University of New York (pp.39-60). (Reader)
    6. .. , 2000. . . , , . 6-27.
    7. .. , 1996. . , , . 5-13, 20-76.

    Seminar 1. Conflict Studies as a Unified Field of its History and Theory (2 hours)

    Methodologies of Conflict Studies: traditional disciplinary methods (field research/ethnography; experiment; survey research; content analysis). Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary methods (a variety of comparativeness: comparative analytical strategies; cross-case comparisons; combined and synthetic strategies; discourse analysis). Classical and modern models.

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union and the development of sub-fields in Conflict Studies: ethnic conflict as a type of social conflict. Basic categories of ethnic conflict: nonviolent confrontation, violent confrontation, and expressed hostile sentiments. Modern theories of ethnic conflict: cultural-clash/value-dissension theory, human ecology theory, competition theory, ethnic inequality /subordination theory (internal colonialism, cultural division of labor theory), a modern split labor market class theory.

    Essay topics:

    1. Classical models. Karl Max: conflict as the contradiction between the forces and the relations of production, the struggle between classes.
    2. Emile Durkheim: conflict and deviant behavior.
    3. Max Weber: conflict as a struggle of material and ideal interests of different status groups.
    4. George Simmel: conflict as a form of social interaction and socialization.
    5. Modern conflict theory. Conflict as social tension in the theory of social action and structural functionalism: Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, Neil Smelser.
    6. The theory of " conflict model" of society: Ralf Dahrendorf.
    7. The criticism of conflict theory and structural functionalism. Towards the way of reconciling and integrating the two theories: Lewis Coser's The Functions of Social Conflict.
    8. A more integrative conflict theory: Randall Collins' Conflict Sociology (1975) as an effort to integrate conflict at macro- and micro-levels.

    Seminar and essay readings:

    See the list of readings for the Lectures 1 and 2.

    Lecture 3. The Notion and Typology of Conflict (2 hours)

    Conflict and conflict situation. Emergence of the conflict in the process of human interactions and relations. Evolution of democratic processes as a factor creating favorable conditions for conflict emergence. Inevitability of conflicts in society.

    Conditions for emergence of conflict situation. Conflict situation as a required, albeit indispensable condition for conflict emergence. Conditions necessary for the growth of a conflict situation into conflict (an external force, impetus, incident).

    The subject, object and topic of conflict. The concept of conflict. Conflict as a situation where both sides realize incompatibility of their interests and each of them assumes a position opposite to the interests of the other.

    Boundaries of conflict. Need to define boundaries of conflict, i.e. its external limits in time and space for a better understanding of the nature of conflict. Three facets of conflict: in time, in space and within the system.

    Functions of conflict. Conflict as a means to identify and resolve contradictions. The absence of an evaluative characterization of conflict. Destructive and constructive nature of conflict. Conflict as a required and permanent component of social relations. Intra-group conflict as a method to restore its unity. Characteristics of constructive and destructive functions. Resolution of contradictions as an objective function of social conflicts. Negative consequences of conflict (violation of certain forms of interaction, norms and standards of behavior).

    Typology of conflict. Variety of conflicts due to various nature of their emergence. Conflicts can be classified in accordance with a number of factors:

  • method of resolution: violent and non-violent;
  • sphere of manifestation: political, social, economic, organizational;
  • direction of impact: vertical and horizontal;
  • degree of manifestation: obvious and latent;
  • number of participants: intra-personal, interpersonal, inter-group;
  • presence of an object: with and without a conflict object;
  • needs (interests, views) involved;
  • degree of regulation;
  • motives;
  • duration: long and short term;
  • resources: material, cultural and social;
  • limitation in time and space;
  • subjects.

  • Classification based on spheres of manifestation is the most simple and easiest to explain.

    1. Economic conflicts as the most widely spread type under the market economy. Large scale economic conflicts involve broad circles of population.
    2. Political conflicts and their potential to grow into large scale social events: riots, mass disorders and, finally, into civil wars.

    Ethnic conflict as one of the most poignant political problems. Limitations of theoretic knowledge on the nature of nations, mechanisms of their interactions and aggravation of ethnic problems. Conflicts emerging from contradictions in the sphere of labor interests, health care, social security, education and their relationships with the first two types of conflicts.

    Further subdivision of conflicts. Subdivision of ethnic conflicts into: mutinies or pogroms (organizers of disorders hold no clear objectives, random development of events). Conflicts of ideological doctrines (national demands do not form at random, but are developed by ideologists - theoreticians). Conflicts of political institutions (border disputes, disputable relations for bodies of the state power, etc).

    Conflict typology can be based on any feature. The aim of classification is to identify peculiarities of conflict, to assist finding its appropriate resolution.

    Readings:

    1. Coser, Lewis 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. NY: Free Press (pp. 8, 41, 49).
    2. Gordon, Judith R. 1987. Approach to Organizational Behavior. A Diagnostic. Boston: Allyn and Bacon (chapter 10, pp. 448, levels 449-451, stages 451-453).
    3. Grinberg, J. 1999. Managing Behavior in Organization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (chapter 9, pp. 207-210).
    4. Halts, K. J.1992. International Polities a Framework for Analysis. New Delhi: Prentice Hall (pp. 348-350).
    5. Huczynski , A. and D. Buchanan 1991. Organizational Behavior. Second Edition, Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd (pp. 547-550). (Reader)
    6. Johnson, David W. 1978. Human Relations and Your Career. A Guide to Interpersonal Skills. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (chapter 9).
    7. Luthans, Fred 1992. Organization Behavior. Sixth Edition. NY: Mc Grow Hill Inc., (pp. 374-378). (Reader)
    8. Moorluad, Gregory and Ricky W. Griffen 1992. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (chapter 10, pp. 307-310).
    9. Randill, K., M. Stutman, S. Pool and Josef Folger 2001. Working Through Conflict. NY: Longman (chapter 7).
    10. Robbins, Stephen P. 2000. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. Sixth Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall (pp.167-169, 170-176). (Reader)
    11. Robbins, Stephen 1993. Organizational Behavior. New Delhi: Prentice Hall (pp. 442-445).
    12. Rubin, Jeffrey Z., Dean G. Pruitt and Sung Hee Kim. 1994. Social Conflict. Escalation, Stalemate and Settlement. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (pp. 5-9: 11-26). (Reader)
    13. Wilson, Gerald L. and Michael S. Hanna. 1990. Groups in Context. Leadership and Participation in Small Groups. Second Edition, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (pp. 255-257, 260-261, 262-264). (Reader)
    14. . ., . ., 1999. , ., . 127-148.
    15. . ., 2000. , ., . 53-73.
    16. ., 1965. / , ., . 100-135.

    Lecture 4. Dynamics of Conflict (2 hours)

    The Galtung triangle for conflict emergence. A for Attitude (hatred as opposed to empathy), B for behavior (violence, both physical and verbal as opposed to non-violence) and C for Contradictions (the blocked issue as opposed to creativity).

    Three stages of conflict dynamics: escalation, stalemate and de-escalation. Escalation and its development. Structural changes in escalation: negative image of the enemy, the doves and the hawks, emergence of militant leaders, formation of semi-military bands, community polarization. Conflict models: Aggressor-defender and conflict development spiral. Over-commitment and entrapment. Conditions that encourage and discourage escalation. Stalemate as exhaustion of resources. Danger of conflict conservation. Beneficiaries and losers of conflict conservation. De-escalation and intervention or problem solving. Beginning of de-escalation: recognition of the other party as partner rather than enemy; recognition of power and advantages of the other party, finding perceived common ground; negotiation, cease - fire.

    Notion of root conflict (original conflict) vs. mega conflict (conflict after escalation). Danger of excessive root conflict suppression. Need for problem solving.

    Does violence accompany all developing conflicts? Need to apply peacebuilding strategies at all three stages of conflict dynamics. Three factors enabling violence: violent cultures, violent structures and violent actors.

    External factors which might fuel conflict dynamics: diasporas, economic and political interests of global powers, regional powers, transnational organized crime, criminal states.

    Readings:

    1. Galtung, Johan. 2000. Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means (The Transcend Method). Geneva: UN, (pp 14-21, 25). (Reader)
    2. Rubin, Jeffrey Z., Dean G. Pruitt and Sung Hee Kim. 1994. Social Conflict. Escalation, Stalemate and Settlement. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (pp. 68-69,72-76,99-100, 112,119, 151-156,194-195). (Reader)
    3. Williams, Phil. 2001. Transnational Criminal Enterprises, Ethnic Conflicts, and Insurgencies. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001.Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.103-111) (Reader)
    4. Lund, Michael S. 1996. Preventing Violent Conflicts: A strategy for Preventive Diplomacy. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.

    Seminar 2. The Notion, Typology and Dynamics of Conflict (2 hours)

    Definition of conflict. Conflict and conflict situation. The Importance of conflict for the development of human society. Boundaries and functions of conflict. Various classification of conflict. Dynamics of conflict: escalation, stalemate and de-escalation. Violence in conflicts. How to avoid violence. External factors influencing conflict dynamics.

    Essay topics

    1. Conflicts as manifestation of social contradictions
    2. Ethnic conflicts and international experience of their regulation
    3. Analysis of dynamics of the US and USSR led Cold War
    4. Chose any conflict (historic or imaginative) and make its analysis: preceding conflict situation, boundaries, functions, place in classification, dynamics, etc.

    Seminar and essay readings:

    See the list of readings for the Lectures 3 and 4.

    Lecture 5-6. Negotiation (4 hours)

    The concept of Negotiation. Negotiation process: structure, stages, types and strategies.

    The concept of distributive bargaining: definition, basic features. The distributive bargaining situation: target, resistance, and starting points; bargaining range (zones); the alternative point; settlement point; bargaining mix. Strategic and tactical tasks in the distributive bargaining situation. Some issues of the distributive bargaining: positions taken during distributive bargaining negotiation: opening offer; opening stance; initial concessions; role of concessions; pattern of concession making; final offer. Commitment: tactical considerations in using commitments; establishing a commitment; preventing the other party from committing prematurely; finding ways to abandon a committed position.

    The concept of integrative bargaining. Key stages in the integrative negotiation process. Some issues in integrative negotiation. Handling the substantive issues: basic principles. Separate the people from the substantive issues. Interests. Options. Criteria. Alternatives. Relationship. Commitment. Handling people-related-problems. Communication and perception in negotiation process: Phase model. Communicating effectively: some issues. Perception and emotion issues. Managing difficult negotiation situations. Challenges when dealing with other negotiators. Negotiation "traps". Dealing with dirty tricks. Using breakthrough tactics. Breaking through barriers to cooperation.

    Other Negotiation strategies: compromising, accommodating and avoiding.

    Preparation to negotiation.

    Readings:

    1. Faure, Gun and Jeffrey Rubin (eds.) 1993. Culture and Negotiation. London: Sage Publications.
    2. Fisher, Roger and D. Ertel 2000. Getting Ready to Negotiate (The Getting to Yes workbook). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    3. Fisher, Roger and William L. Ury. 1996. Getting to Yes. London: Arrow Business Books, (pp.101-133). (Reader)
    4. Gordon, Judith 1993. A Diagnostic Approach to Organizational Behavior. London: Allyn and Bacon (pp. 391-443).
    5. Lewicki, R. J., J. A. Littere, D. M. Sounders and J. W. Minton 1994. Negotiation. NY: McGraw Hill (chapters 3-7).
    6. Ury, William L. 1993. Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Confrontation to Cooperation. NY: Bantam Books.

    Internet sources:

    <www.negotiation.com>Rev.2003-01-21
    <www.negotiatorpro.com> Rev.2003-01-21

    Seminar 3. Oil Pricing Exercise. Role-based simulation (General Instructions) (Reader) (2 hours)

    Lecture 7. Problem Solving (2 hours)

    Defining problem solving: effort to develop a mutually acceptable solution. Outcomes of problem solving. Types of integrative solutions (expanding the pie, nonspecific compensation, logrolling, cost cutting, bridging).

    The analysis of underlying interests. How to go about problem solving. Covert problem solving.

    Strategies of persuading other to engage in problem solving.

    Readings:

    1. Bercovitch, Jacob 1997. Mediation in International Conflict. In: Zartman, W. and L. Rasmussen (eds.) 1997. Peacemaking in International Conflict. Method and Techniques. Washington D. C.: USIP Press (pp. 239-272).
    2. Gordon, Judith 1993. A Diagnostic Approach to Organizational Behavior. London: Allyn and Bacon (pp. 445-493).
    3. Kriesberg, Louis 1998. Constructive Conflicts. From Escalation to Resolution. NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers ltd. (pp. 267-274).
    4. Robbins, Stephen 1993. Organizational Behavior. New Delhi: Prentice Hall (pp. 443-483).
    5. Rubin, Jeffrey Z., Dean G. Pruitt and Sung Hee Kim. 1994. Social Conflict. Escalation, Stalemate and Settlement. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (pp. 168-179). (Reader)

    Essay topics:

    1. Think of recent situations in which you experienced conflict. What caused the conflict? Was it beneficial or harmful? How was it resolved?
    2. When does conflict resolution work, when does it not?
    3. Which conflicts are conducive to successful conflict resolution?
    4. What are the costs of conflict resolution, what are the benefits?
    5. Examples of successful third-party intervention
    6. What is the role of outside actors in international conflicts?
    7. What is the role of preventive conflict resolution?

    Essay readings:

    1. Beyond Machiavelli: Tools for Coping With Conflict by Roger Fisher, et al. Hardcover (April 1994) (from www.amazon.com)
    2. Burton, John W. 1995. Conflict Prevention as a Political System. In: Vasquez, John A. et al. (eds.) 1995. Beyond Confrontation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (pp.115-127).
    3. Carment, David 1994. The Ethnic Dimension in World Politics: Theory, Policy and Early Warning. Third World Quaterly, Vol. 15, No 4 (pp.551-582).
    4. Dealing With Someone Who Is Selfish (The Conflict Resolution Library) by Don Middleton. Library Binding (August 1999) (from www.amazon.com)
    5. Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most by Douglas Stone, et al. Audio CD (April 6, 1999) (from www.amazon.com)
    6. Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most by Douglas Stone, et al. Paperback (April 3, 2000) (from www.amazon.com)
    7. Fisher, Ronald 1989. Pre-negotiation Problem-Solving Discussions: Enhancing the Potential for Successful Negotiations. International Journal, No 64, Spring 1989. Ronald Fisher, Prenegotiation Problem-Solving Discussions: Enhancing the Potential for Successful Negotiations, International Journal 64 (Spring, 1989).
    8. Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Confrontation to Cooperation by William Ury. Paperback (February 1993) (from www.amazon.com)
    9. Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Policy: The Constraints and the Opportunities. In: Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Los Angeles: University of California Press (pp. 563-600).
    10. Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Structural Techniques to Reduce Ethnic Conflict. In: Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Los Angeles: University of California Press (pp. 601-625).
    11. Jentleson, Bruce W. 1996. Preventive Diplomacy and Ethnic Conflict: Possible, Difficult, Necessary. IGGC Policy Paper, No 27, June 1996, San Diego: Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (pp. 23).
    12. Lake, David A. and Donald Rothschild 1996. Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict. International Security, Vol. 21, No 2, Fall 1996 (pp. 41-75).
    13. Ross, Lee and Constance Stillinger 1991. Barriers to Conflict Resolution. Negotiation Journal, October 1991 (pp. 389-404).
    14. The Keys to Conflict Resolution: Proven Methods of Settling Disputes Voluntarily by Theodore W. Kheel, William L. Lurie (Introduction). Hardcover (May 1999) (from www.amazon.com)
    15. Williams, Phil 1991. Crisis Management in Europe: Old Mechanisms and New Problems. In: George, Alexander L. (ed.) 1991. Avoiding War. Oxford: Westview Press (pp. 500-517).

    Lecture 8. Mediation (2 hours)

    The notion of mediator (assist a discussion and suggests an opinion of his own); mediator versus intermediary (go in between); facilitator (assists a discussion without offering an opinion of his own); history of mediation use; the study of international mediation; samples of successful mediation cases; the motives for mediation.

    Defining mediation: variety of definitions. Mediator's behavior and roles. Shapers of mediator roles. Mediator contributions.

    Who may mediate: individuals, states, institutions and organizations. Mediator strategies in impasse and decision making. Negotiation styles in mediation.

    Readings:

    1. Bercovitch, Jacob 1997. Mediation in International Conflict. In: Zartman, W. and L. Rasmussen (eds.) 1997. Peacemaking in International Conflict. Method and Techniques. Washington D. C.: USIP Press (pp. 125-155).
    2. Fisher, Roger and William L. Ury. 1996. Getting to Yes. London: Arrow Business Books, (pp.56-end).
    3. Kriesberg, Louis 1998. Constructive Conflicts. From Escalation to Resolution. NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers ltd. (pp. 231-249).
    4. Rubin, Jeffrey Z., Dean G. Pruitt and Sung Hee Kim. 1994. Social Conflict. Escalation, Stalemate and Settlement. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (pp. 196-223).
    5. . ... 1999. .: "", (.402-411).(Reader) 6.

    Essay topics:

    1. You, as a mediator in a personal injury case, are in a separate caucus and one party's representative comments that they have no authority and are at the mediation purely to see how low the other side will go.
    2. You, as a mediator in a property sale/purchase matter, are in separate caucus and the purchaser states that while the seller thinks the property is going to be preserved as a historic site, the buyers intend to bulldoze it as soon as the paperwork is signed.

    Essay readings:

    1. Bercovitch, Jacob and Allison Houston 1993. Influence of Mediator Characteristics and Behavior on the Success of Mediation in International Relations. In: International Journal of Conflict Management, No 4, October 1993 (pp. 297-321).
    2. Bercovitch, Jacob and Jeffrey Langley 1992. The Nature of the Dispute and the Effectiveness of International Relations. NY: St. Martin's Press.
    3. Blake, Robert and Jane Srygley Mouton 1985. Solving Costly Organizational Conflicts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    4. Haas, Richard 1990. Conflicts Unending. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    5. Schelling, Thomas 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
    6. Princen, Thomas 1992. Intermediaries in International Conflicts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    7. Touval, Saadi 1992. The Superpowers as Mediators. Mediation in International Relations. NY: St. Martin's Press.

    Internet sources:

    <http://www.nafcm.org/> Rev. 2003-01-21
    <www.adrr.com> Rev. 2003-01-21

    Lecture 9. Peacebuilding: From Settlement to Reconciliation (2 hours)

    Definition of "peace". Ways to achieve peace: negotiated settlement as a better alternative to military victory of one party.

    Stages of peacebuilding. Initial stage to prevent further conflict escalation and accompanying violence: (1) negotiation for a cease-fire, (2) cessation of hostilities.

    Main stage of sustainable peacebuilding:(1) transition from war to peace, (2) consolidation of peace.

    Perspective: Lack of long term peace perspective in conflict resolution approach versus peacebuilding as a long-term process aimed at achievement of sustainable peace.

    Major tasks of sustainable peace building stage:

    (1) period of transition: inclusiveness of all major stakeholders; establishment of a government (in some cases of an interim government); disarmament of the militants; refugee repatriation.

    (2) period of consolidation of peace: building institutional systems, reintegration of soldiers; reconstruction of economy; rehabilitation of the most affected groups (disabled, homeless, orphans, etc.); reconciliation of the hostile parties.

    The problem of weak institutionalization of post-conflict societies. Absence of: the rule of law, balance of powers, transparency and accountability of the state administration system, independent media. Danger of recurrence of fighting in the result of hasty liberalization before establishment of a proper institutional system. The more successful cases of interim rigid governments

    Peacebuilding as an ongoing long-term process. The significance of peacebuilding actors. Role of international actors: mediators, peace making forces, donor aid, investments, guarantees. Role of internal actors: state, business community, religious leaders, media and civil society.

    The crucial role of the civil society: different tasks at the top, middle and grass roots level. Peacebuilder as an emerging profession. The financial cost of involving civilians into peace building transformation as compared with military methods. Creative approach and dialogue as the conflict worker's main tool.

    Special aspects of peacebuilding: the problem of cultural specifics, gender differences, role of history and accent on future development rather than on historic past, religion, arts and education, environment protection, etc.

    Application of peacebuilding strategies at pre - peacebuilding stages. Strategies: training individuals and groups in conflict management and peacebuilding, organizing meetings, conferences and dialogues with the opposite parties, promoting peace culture through mass media and workshops, empowering women, inviting mediators, creating economic interests.

    Readings:

    1. Baker, Pauline H. 2001. Conflict Resolution vs. Democratic Governance: Divergent Paths to Peace? In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Insitute of Peace (pp.759-763). (Reader)
    2. Cohen, Raymond, 1991. Negotiating Across Cultures: communication obstacles in international diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.8-14). (Reader)
    3. Galtung, Johan 2000. Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means (The Transcend Method). Geneva: UN (pp. 14-15; 21; 25; 31; 74-75). (Reader)

    Lecture 10. Justice and Creativity in Reconciliation (2 hours)

    The problem of post conflict justice and retribution. Reasonable balance between retribution and pardon for war crimes. Danger of excessive retribution in the long-term perspective. Example of Germany after World War I and World War II. Acknowledgement of atrocities and injustices committed. Restitution of property, financial reparations and compensation of economic losses. The problem of incompatibility of peace and justice for all stakeholders.

    Existing political structuring of post conflict societies: partition, cultural and political autonomy. Creative approach to peacebuilding: power sharing, condominium and territorial exchange.

    J.Galtung model. Notion of conflict transformation as opposed to conflict resolution. Ways to transform conflicts: cultivate peaceful culture (ex. through mass media), build peaceful structures (ex., establish a Council for inter-group relations or reconciliation commission), bring in peaceful actors (groups of peace makers to work among opposed groups, ex., representatives of international community, religious leaders, women, NGOs).

    Three stages: creative approach (get away from stereotypes, ex. a piece of territory should be owned by one state), transcend (create a new reality ex., introduce a notion of condominium for a disputed territory) and transformation (transplant a conflict into a new reality, ex. design legislation for condominium and start joint exploitation).

    Inconsistencies of international legislation: numerous existing cases of incompatibility of the right of nation for self-determination and impunity of state borders. Sanctity of laws versus conflict between the law and new reality. Need to amend original peace treaties to adapt to changing realities.

    Readings:

    1. Ball, Nicole 2001. The Challenge of Rebuilding War Torn Societies. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict.Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.720-726). (Reader)
    2. Kritz, Neil J. 2001. The Rule of Law in the Post-conflict Phase. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.805-811;813). (Reader)
    3. Lederach, John Paul 2001. Civil Society and Reconciliation. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.841-847; 853-854). (Reader)
    4. Licklider, Roy 2001. Obstacles to Peace Settlements in Turbulent Peace. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.698-699; 706-709). (Reader)
    5. Paris, Roland 2001. Wilson's Ghost: The Faulty Assumptions of Post-conflict Peace Building. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp. 765-767; 780-781). (Reader)
    6. Sisk, Timothy D. 2001. Democratization and Peace Building. In: Ed. by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. 2001. Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp.786-787; 797-799). (Reader)

    Essay topics:

    1. Peacebuilding as an emerging profession: the concept and stages of peacebuilding; settlement to be followed by reconciliation, peacebuilding actors; main obstacles and potential dangers on the way of peacebuilding; peacebuilding as opposed to conflict resolution; characteristics for peacebuilder (personal, social, cultural); peacebuilding strategies; examples of successful and unsuccessful peacebuilding efforts.

    2. The problem of justice and retribution in peacebuilding: reasonable balance between retribution and pardon for war crimes; resettlement of war refugees; the problem of war prisoners; reconciliation of hostile parties; restitution of lost property; rehabilitation of the most badly war affected groups; reparations for losses incurred by the war; donor aid.

    3. Building democracy in a post-conflict society: ability/inability of post-war societies to make a swift transition to democracy; danger of emergence of authoritarian regimes; possibility of temporary stewardship, the problem of an interim government; the need for gradual but irreversible shift to democracy building.

    4. The Transcend method after J.Galtung: creativity in peacebuilding; conflict transformation; conflict transcendence; creation and legalization of new reality; contradictions in national and international legislation concerning the newly emerged realities and how to overcome them.

    Essay readings:

    See the list of readings for the Lectures 8 and 9.

    Seminar 4. Collective Peacebuilding Efforts. Role - based simulation (General Instructions) (2 hours)

    Lecture 11. Women, Gender and Conflict (2 hours)

    Women and war (general review). The impact of wars on women. Women are central as victims but marginal as agents. Consideration of women's roles, experiences, needs and capabilities in war and violent conflicts.

    Gender and conflict. Gender or sex? Social and biological differences. Conceptualization of masculinity and femininity. Cross-cultural tendencies. Defining gender and gender mainstreaming. Implication of gender mainstreaming in the context of conflict and war. Possibilities of changing gender roles.

    The principles of equality and political participation. Participation in decision-making as a human right of women. Women in political decision-making: arguments. Obstacles to women's political participation.

    Readings:

    1. Breines, Ingeborg 1999. A Gender Perspective on a Culture of Peace. In: Breines, Ingeborg, Dorota Gierycz and Betty Reardon (eds.) 1999. Toward a Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace. Paris: UNESCO (chapter 2, pp. 33-53). (Reader)
    2. Cott, Nancy F. 1987. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, London: Yale University Press (pp. 243-267). (Reader)
    3. Gierycz, Dorota 1999. Women in Decision-making: Can We Change the Status Quo? In: Breines, Ingeborg, Dorota Gierycz and Betty Reardon (eds.) 1999. Toward a Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace. Paris: UNESCO (pp. 19-28). (Reader)
    4. Green, Rosario 1996. Women and Men in Partnership for a Healthier Society. In: Cahill, Kevin M. 1996. Preventive Diplomacy. NY: Basic Books (pp. 87-99). (Reader)
    5. Skjelslak, Inger and Dan Smith 2001. Gender, Peace and Conflict. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute (pp. 3-7). (Reader)
    6. Smith, Dan 1999. Women, War and Peace. In: Breines, Ingeborg, Dorota Gierycz and Betty Reardon (eds.) 1999. Toward a Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace. Paris: UNESCO (pp. 57-71). (Reader)

    Lecture 12. Women in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding (2 hours)

    A gender-aware perspective on peacebuilding. Women's organizations for peace. Actions to empower women's movements. Women as peacebuilders.

    A gender perspective on a culture of peace. UNESCO's definition of a culture of peace. The conceptual structure of the UN Agenda for Peace and the role of women in the agenda for peace. Women's contribution to a culture of peace.

    Approaches to gender analysis in the areas of peace and security as reflected in the documents of the Second and Third World Conferences on Women. IV World Conference on Women. Beijing Platform for Action (Strategy on women in armed conflicts).

    "Women and Peace" in the agenda of the Commission on Women's Status. Women's actions and initiatives for peace. Good examples.

    Readings:

    1. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action with the Beijing+5 Political Declaration and Outcome Document NY: UN, 2001 (pp. 82-93; 196-200); <http://www.unifem.org/beijing/> Rev. 2003-22-01 (Reader)
    2. Chenoy, Anuradha Mitra and Achin Vanaik 2001. Promoting Peace, Security and Conflict Resolution: Gender Balance in Decision-making. In: Skjelslak, Inger and Dan Smith 2001. Gender, Peace and Conflict. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute (pp. 122-138). (Reader)
    3. Dahlerup, Drude 2001. Women in Political Decision-making; From Critical Mass to Critical Acts in Scandinavia. In: Skjelslak, Inger and Dan Smith 2001. Gender, Peace and Conflict. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute (pp. 104-121). (Reader)
    4. Marshall, Donna Ramsey 2000. Women in War and Peace. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace (pp. 7-27). (Reader)
    5. Stephenson, Carolyn M. 1999. Gender and the United Nations: Agenda for Peace. In Towards Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace Paris: UNESCO (101-111). (Reader)
    6. Tuft, Eva Irene 2001. Integrating a Gender Perspective in Conflict Resolution: The Columbian Case. In: Skjelslak, Inger and Dan Smith 2001. Gender, Peace and Conflict. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute (pp. 139-145).
    7. United Nations Security Council Resolution # 1325. Rev. 2003-22-01 or <http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2000/sc2000.htm> Rev. 2003-22-01

    Seminar 5: Gender Mainstreaming in the Context of Defense, Conflict and Peacebuilding (2 hours)

    A gender mainstreaming approach is about recognizing the value and positive benefits of adding a female perspective in often a male dominated sector: case studies in Defense, Conflict and Peacebuilding.

    Three perspectives on possible interventions and entry points of women within military and defense institutions:
  • government and policy makers' affirmative action and non-discrimination policies aimed at increasing the number of women in these institutions;
  • increasing awareness and generating debates on men's and women's diverse roles in contributing to military and defense institutions;
  • integrating a gender perspective into research on military and defense institutions.

  • Women in peacebuilding activities: training and education, establishing early warning structures, developing strategies for peace reconstruction and reconciliation and conflict prevention.

    Gender roles in violent conflict and war. Women as: soldiers, mothers and wives of soldiers, as part of civilian communities targeted during conflict, as victim of rape and other war crimes, breadwinners and heads of households, careers for children, the elderly and the wounded, social and political organizers, women as attackers.

    Essay topics:

    1. Gender Roles in Violent Conflict and War.
    2. Women in Conflict Resolution, Peacebuilding and Post-conflict Situations.
    3. Women and Men in Partnership for a Healthier Society.
    4. Women in Decision-making Processes.
    5. Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution.

    Seminar and essay readings:

    See the list for the Lectures 11 and 12.

    Essay Presentation (2 hours)
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